Solid angles and channels consist of single lengths of steel used as both vertical columns and horizontal beams to frame a building. They are not adjustable, and must be ordered based on size and length. Solid steel columns include I-beams, U-shaped channels and simple angle brackets. These components can be used individually to form a column, or combined for added support. They must be joined together at intersections or corners using metal bolts or welding techniques. Some installers add steel angle plates to increase the security of the connection between columns and beams..
While solid steel columns are frequently found in commercial structures, they are used less frequently in residential homes. Some builders choose steel rather than wood framing because of its added strength and durability, as well as its resistance to rot, termites and other pests.
Builders must typically spray steel columns with fireproofing materials to help prevent structural failure during a fire. This cementitious spray has a significant impact on the appearance of the column, making it difficult to leave columns exposed, and limiting the design potential of the space. To eliminate the need for spray fireproofing, builders may swap solid steel beams and angles for hollow steel tubes. These tubes can be filled with concrete to add fire protection, leaving the outside of the column free for paint or other finishes. The concrete may be reinforced with rebar or wire mesh to add additional strength to the column, or in accordance with local code requirements. These square or round cement-filled columns are known as lollys or lolly columns in some regions.
I-beams have a central section and four horizontal flanges so that a cross-section of the beam resembles the letter I. Beams are rated by an "A" number according to their load-bearing capacity, up to 65,000 lbs. per square inch for A992. They are also designated as to their depth and weight per square foot. Structural I-Beams are also known as S beams. They are used as basic structural components in building projects of all kinds, from large garden sheds to 100-story skyscrapers.
A wide-flange I-Beam has longer flanges than S beams, so that the beam in cross-section resembles the letter H. The American Standard I-Beam has flanges that are not parallel. H-beams are commonly used as foundation beams or vertical piles.3.
A corrugated web beam is a built-up beam with thin walled corrugated web. The profiling of the web avoids the failure of the beam due to loss of stability before the plastic limit loading of the web is reached. The use of corrugated webs is a potential method to achieve adequate out of plane stiffness and bending resistance without using stiffeners. There are different types of corrugated web profiles such as triangular, trapezoidal, semi-circular etc.. The load carrying capacity of the beam is studied under different cases by performing a non-linear static analysis using commercial finite element software. There are many parameters that influence the bending and buckling behaviour of the corrugated web profile steel section such as web thickness(tw), depth of web (d) and corrugation radius (ro). This study is to investigate the static behaviour of semi-circular corrugated web beams by varying the corrugation radius.
In structural and fabrication technology, new techniques of optimized steel structure design have been developed. One of the developments in steel structure design is the introduction of corrugated web beams. Beams in bending develop tension and compression in their flange. Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e., loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression member.
Steel beams can be connected to each other in the traditional way, with plates and rivets welded into the faces of the linked beams. They can also be linked by heavy clamps, which are attached with plates and a set of heavy bolts. No welding is necessary when using clamps, which can be adjusted to the depth and thickness of the beam.
Steel deck is designed to have a high strength-to-weight ratio for handling heavy loads of concrete and membrane while still remaining versatile. The width and depth of the ribs in each piece of steel deck are crucial to providing lateral force distribution throughout the structure's vertical force resisting systems. The four common rib types are narrow, intermediate, wide and deep. The first three each feature rib depths of about 40mm and are produced with 3 feet cover width, while the deep rib is about 3 to 7 inches tall with 24-inch cover widths and is mostly used when longer spans are required between support beams. Builders can choose from a wide variety of thicknesses as well, although typically no thinner than 0.76mm.Steel deck is available in a number of specialized designs, including composite, cellular and acoustic.
Composite deck is made with mechanical embossing in the webs that creates a structural bond between the steel deck and the concrete. The composite action lets the steel deck act as a pliable reinforcement for the slab, eliminating the need for rebar and reducing the costs of labour and materials. Steel deck can be erected in and can withstand nearly all types of weather conditions, from intense sun and humidity to rain, sleet, frost and snow. The galvanized steel used to make steel deck features a rust-resistant zinc, zinc-iron or zinc-aluminium alloy coating that usually meets requirements for fire resistance. In addition, steel deck is a low-cost material with a long life cycle that provides high economic value, is relatively easy to maintain and provides an aesthetically pleasing appearance if left exposed.
Shear Studs that transfers shear stress between metal and concrete in composite structuralmembers in which the stud is welded to the metal component.
The shear connection of a composite beam comprises five elements that can all influence behaviour. They include the shear stud connectors, profiled steel sheeting(steel deck) , slab reinforcement (rebar or steel mesh) , concrete slab and steel beam top flange. In such design the shear Stud connects the steel deck to the concrete slab.
Shear Stud Connectors are the most important element in Composite Beam design securing the concrete to steel structural components. Shear Stus Connectors resist shear forces and increase shear loading capacity in steel buildings,bridges,
Design of the shear stud connector is very important because
1-It affects the choice of a suitable ultimate strength design method for the composite beam
2-The economics and speed of construction
3-The stability of the steel beam
4-The safety of steel beam against collapsing
The ultimate strength of most composite beams is governed by shear stud connector shear capacity.
Purlins are also used to build wider roofs, as they provide mid-span support. In addition, they increase the rigidity of the roof and support the overall weight of the roof deck. In steel construction, purlins are used as roof framing members that support the roof sheeting or decking.
Channels are flat, shallow beams in the shape of a U, with a set of parallel short flanges on one side of the beam. They can be used as flat load-bearers attached to a horizontal surface, such as a flat roof or a poured concrete foundation. They also come in 20-foot lengths.
Welded Wire Mesh (WWM)is the preferred choice for concrete reinforcement throughout the construction industry (worldwide) and replaces the traditional "cut & bend" and placing of steel bars This concept is a step forward in the mechanization of reinforcement laying. It is the easiest and correct solution for achieving the requirements of quality, reliability, speed and efficiency at construction site.
Expanded mesh balcony railings can be made from copper, aluminium, stainless steel, brass or galvanised steel. Panels are available with a choice of finishes and patterns. Balcony railings and infill panels are made to client requirements.
Used to provide security to parking garages, garden, sports area, farming place, electrical HVAC rooms, openings where small animals or children may try to gain access to a secure area.
Used to create a safety and security barrier Encourages clear site lines while providing protection Different fitting options available, including coverstaps and u-edging for site specific applications